1. The word “Bible” means “books.” The Bible is a library of 66 books written by authors over a period of 1500 years. There are 39 books in the Old Testament (OT) and 27 books in the New Testament (NT).
2. The authors claimed that their words were from God, dictated to them by the Holy Spirit. Some use the word “inspired” by God. “Inspiration” is a translation of the Greek word theopneustos. Theopneustos literally means “God-breathed.” This translation was derived from the Latin Vulgate Bible where the word inspiro is used in 2 Timothy 3:16 to translate the word theopneustos. The emphasis is that Scripture has been breathed-out by God. “All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:” 2 Timothy 3:16
3. Daniel referred to the Old Testament writings (the book of Jeremiah) as the “books” in Daniel 9:2 “In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.”
4. Jesus referred to the Old Testament writings as the Scriptures in Matthew 21:42 “Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in the scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord’s doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes?”, The Law in John 10:34 “Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods?”, The Prophets in Matthew 5:17 “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.”, The Psalms in Luke 24:44 “And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.”
5. Jesus quoted out of the Old Testament 76 times from 12 Old Testament books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy (most), Psalms, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Hosea, Micah, Zechariah, Malachi.
6. Paul called the Old Testament writings: The Scriptures – Romans 15:4 “For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.”, The Oracles of God – Romans 3:2 ” Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.”, The Law – 1 Corinthians 14:21 “In the law it is written, With men of other tongues and other lips will I speak unto this people; and yet for all that will they not hear me, saith the LORD.”
7. Paul quoted the Old Testament 131 times from 17 Old Testament books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 1 Chronicles, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekial, Hosea, Joel, Habakkuk, Malachi.
8. Seven books have no quotes in the New Testament but are referred to in the New Testament: Numbers – 1 Corinthians 10:9; Judges – Acts 13:20; Ruth – Matthew 1:5; 1 Samuel – Hebrews 11:32; 2 Kings – Matthew 1; 2 Chronicles – Matthew 1; Jonah – Matthew 16:4.
9. Old Testament books which are neither quoted from nor referred to in the New Testament: Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Lamentations, Obadiah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, yet by the time of Christ, these were considered the Scriptures by the Jews and contained in the Canon that Christ approved of. (“Canon” means “the official list of the books contained in the Bible; books of the Bible accepted by the churches.”)
10. A total of 314 verses are used from the Old Testament in the New Testament. Ninety-two of the 314 refer to Christ.
11. A total of 136 different Old Testament characters are referred to in the New Testament.
12. Thirty out of 39 Old Testament books are represented in the New Testament (see number 9 above)
13. Luke referred to the Old Testament four times from three different books: Exodus, Leviticus, Isaiah.
14. The disciples referred to the Old Testament as the Scriptures in Luke 24:32 “And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures?”
15. Peter quoted from seven Old Testament books: Genesis, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Psalms, Proverbs, Isaiah, Joel.
16. Peter referred to all of Paul’s writing as Scriptures: 2 Peter 3:16 “As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction.” Paul wrote 14 of the 27 New Testament books. (The word “scriptures” means “holy writ.”)
17. The New Testament directly quotes 23 Old Testament books: Psalms – 78 times (most), Isaiah – 57 times, Deuteronomy – 47 times, Exodus – 31 times, Genesis – 26 times, Leviticus – 23 times, Jeremiah – 9 times, Hosea – 6 times, Zechariah – 6 times, Proverbs – 5 times, Malachi – 5 times, Habbakkuk – 4 times, Micah – 3 times, Joel – 2 times, Amos – 2 times, Daniel – 2 times, 1 Kings – 2 times, 2 Samuel – 1 time, 1 Chronicles – 1 time, Joshua – 1 time, Ezekiel – 1 time, Haggai – 1 time, Job – 1 time
18. The top ten characters referred to in the New Testament from the Old Testament: Moses – 101 times, Abraham – 94 times, David – 67 times, Elijah – 41 times, Isaiah – 26 times, Jacob – 26 times, Isaac – 24 times, Adam – 18 times, Judah – 16 times, Joseph – 14 times
19. The writers of the Old Testament books include (but are not limited to): Moses, Joshua, Samuel, Ezra, Nehemiah, David, Sons of Korah, Asaph, Heman, Ethan, Solomon, Haggai, Zechariah, Hezekiah, Agur, Lemuel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Malachi, and other unknown authors.
20. The writers of the New Testament books include: Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Paul, Peter, James, and Jude.
21. The occupations of these authors are very diverse and include a soldier, an Egyptian prince, a priest, a king, a rich farmer, a poor farmer, a scribe, prophets, a prime minister’s cupbearer, a tax collector, an evangelist, a physician, a wealthy fisherman, a poor fisherman, a carpenter, a tentmaker, and others of unknown occupations.
22. Some of the authors, like Moses and Paul, were very educated men, others, like Peter and John, were considered unlearned and ignorant – Acts 4:13 “Now when they saw the boldness of Peter and John, and perceived that they were unlearned and ignorant men, they marvelled; and they took knowledge of them, that they had been with Jesus.”, yet the Lord used them to write 7 New Testament books.
23. God is in no way mentioned in the book of Esther or the Song of Solomon, but His presence and works are seen throughout.
24. The Canon of Scripture (66 books) was completed in 95 AD, when John finished writing the “Revelation.” These books were the only ones accepted by the first century church leaders as inspired by God. Other spurious (false or counterfeit) works were not accepted by the early church. The Roman Catholic Church attempted to add to the Bible the Apocrypha Books (such as Tobias, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, 1 and 2 Machabees) in the 1500’s. These books were rejected as spurious, and though they were added between the Old and New Testaments of the King James Bibles for their “literary and historical value,” the outcry of believers and lovers of the Bible was so loud that they were soon deleted so as not to be mistaken as scripture. These books still appear in Roman Catholic Bibles (Douay-Rheims version) but few others. These protestors were right to cry out against them:
Deuteronomy 4:2 “Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, neither shall ye diminish ought from it, that ye may keep the commandments of the LORD your God which I command you.”, Deuteronomy 12:32 “What thing soever I command you, observe to do it: thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it.”
Proverbs 30:5, 6 “Every word of God is pure: he is a shield unto them that put their trust in him. Add thou not unto his words, lest he reprove thee, and thou be found a liar.”
Revelation 22:18, 19 “For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.”